s-c-i-guy:


First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man’s Skin
Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep’s egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal.
Dolly’s birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern — along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases.
But Dolly’s birth also triggered years of frustration. It’s proved very difficult to do that same sort of DNA transfer into a human egg.
Last year, scientists in Oregon said they’d finally done it, using DNA taken from infants. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology, says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes.
"There are many diseases, whether it’s diabetes, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, that usually increase with age," Lanza says. So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people — not just cells from infants — to create therapies for adult diseases.
Lanza’s colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success.
Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell, they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. As with Dolly, the women’s nuclear DNA had been removed from these eggs before the man’s DNA was injected. They repeated the process — this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man.
"What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says.
They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. Each of those two cells is able to divide indefinitely, “so from a small vial of those cells we could grow up as many cells as we would ever want,” Lanza says.
They look like the cells in a human embryo — in fact, they’re called embryonic stem cells. And with a bit of coaxing, these cells could, theoretically, be prodded to turn into any sort of human cell — nerve, heart, liver and pancreas, for example. That’s what makes them potentially useful for treating all sorts of diseases.
In the 18 years since researchers cloned a sheep, scientists have found another way to produce cloned human cell lines. And the other technique, which produces “induced pluripotent stem cells,” skips the step that requires a human egg cell, so some people find it less fraught, ethically.
It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all.
"We now have two ways and we’re not sure which of the two methods is likely to work best," Lanza says.
Ideally he would like to screen millions of adults and choose just a hundred or so whose genes would make them good DNA donors. He’d like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes.
In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients — just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors.
Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant — creating a patient-specific treatment — though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells.
Paul Knoepfler at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine is excited about this advance from a medical point of view. But he says this does mean we could be getting closer to being able to go beyond cloned cell lines to cloning an entire human being.
"I don’t think that’s coming anytime soon, but certainly this kind of technology could be abused by some kind of rogue scientist," Knoepfler says.
And while many people consider that idea dangerous and repugnant, it is not broadly illegal.
source

s-c-i-guy:

First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man’s Skin

Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep’s egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal.

Dolly’s birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern — along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases.

But Dolly’s birth also triggered years of frustration. It’s proved very difficult to do that same sort of DNA transfer into a human egg.

Last year, scientists in Oregon said they’d finally done it, using DNA taken from infants. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology, says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes.

"There are many diseases, whether it’s diabetes, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, that usually increase with age," Lanza says. So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people — not just cells from infants — to create therapies for adult diseases.

Lanza’s colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success.

Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell, they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. As with Dolly, the women’s nuclear DNA had been removed from these eggs before the man’s DNA was injected. They repeated the process — this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man.

"What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says.

They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. Each of those two cells is able to divide indefinitely, “so from a small vial of those cells we could grow up as many cells as we would ever want,” Lanza says.

They look like the cells in a human embryo — in fact, they’re called embryonic stem cells. And with a bit of coaxing, these cells could, theoretically, be prodded to turn into any sort of human cell — nerve, heart, liver and pancreas, for example. That’s what makes them potentially useful for treating all sorts of diseases.

In the 18 years since researchers cloned a sheep, scientists have found another way to produce cloned human cell lines. And the other technique, which produces “induced pluripotent stem cells,” skips the step that requires a human egg cell, so some people find it less fraught, ethically.

It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all.

"We now have two ways and we’re not sure which of the two methods is likely to work best," Lanza says.

Ideally he would like to screen millions of adults and choose just a hundred or so whose genes would make them good DNA donors. He’d like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes.

In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients — just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors.

Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant — creating a patient-specific treatment — though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells.

Paul Knoepfler at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine is excited about this advance from a medical point of view. But he says this does mean we could be getting closer to being able to go beyond cloned cell lines to cloning an entire human being.

"I don’t think that’s coming anytime soon, but certainly this kind of technology could be abused by some kind of rogue scientist," Knoepfler says.

And while many people consider that idea dangerous and repugnant, it is not broadly illegal.

source

(via wifigirl2080)

policymic:

How many Earth twins are out there? Hundreds possibly

NASA’s recent discovery of Kepler-186f, the first habitable Earth-sized planet is big news in humankind’s long search for extraterrestrial life.

A universe full of exoplanets: Thanks to the Kepler Space Telescope, which was launched in 2009 to hunt planets across the universe, we’ve managed to find around 1800 exoplanets so far, many of which have been discovered in just the last year or so.

Read moreFollow policymic

(via memewhore)

aqua:

mikustache:

I cannot wait for those cisphobic, heterophobic asses to have kids.

and they end up having a straight cis male child

haha

damn my child has fundamental human rights and is going to live a life free of oppression what a kick in the balls what a truly terrible thing 2 wish on someone

(via goffslut)

buzzfeed:

asgardreid:

boyfriendhook:

In which Jaime required coffee in order to sit through the wedding vows. [x]

OMFG BEST MISTAKE EVER

Did the Tyrells bring Starbucks to King’s Landing?

Jaime Lannister shows up 15 minutes late with Starbucks and a gold hand.

(via pimpunderthemountain)

hotsuburbandad:

This is fake. They haven’t been sat on that rock for 50 years. If you look closely you can clearly see her swimsuit is different in the second photo, it has stripes on it. And the guy’s shorts seem to have a more floral pattern in the latter photo.Also, if someone sat on a rock for 50 years, it would have made the news. My theory is, they simply returned to the same location 50 years later, and recreated the original photo.

hotsuburbandad:

This is fake. They haven’t been sat on that rock for 50 years. If you look closely you can clearly see her swimsuit is different in the second photo, it has stripes on it. And the guy’s shorts seem to have a more floral pattern in the latter photo.Also, if someone sat on a rock for 50 years, it would have made the news. My theory is, they simply returned to the same location 50 years later, and recreated the original photo.

(via wahalalife)

vampishly:

practical uses for men

vampishly:

practical uses for men

(via goffslut)

shiny-dragonair:

My favorite thing to burn.

shiny-dragonair:

My favorite thing to burn.

(via tsarbucks)

aneternalscoutandabrownie:

jamesmdavisson:

So far, I have been enjoying the Adventures of Business Cat a great deal, possibly more than is appropriate for an adult human. (All of these are from the webcomic Happy Jar)

UPDATE: Now with more Business.

YES ALL THE BUSINESS CAT STRIPS IN ONE PLACE

(via thelighthouseguardian)

Album Art
TitleUhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

sizvideos:

To the Boys Who May One Day Date My Daughter - Video

Uuggghhh…masculinity masquerading as being ‘accepting.’

(via thelighthouseguardian)

mishasminions:

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, THE AGENTS OF The Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement and Logistics Division

(via susiethemoderator)